Á=== Democracy=Ť

Balochistan United Front (Federal Republican) (BUF-FED) educational seminars
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Democracy is a beautiful concept and a beautiful word as well. It has been subject of debate for centuries, the philosophers have taken pride in refining the concept of democracy, and numerous nations have found practical application for it and enjoying the fruit of democracy but we Iranian have been struggling for centuries to bring democracy to our people with disastrous results.



Topics of Discussion

n         Definition of democracy

n         Type of democracy

n         Majority and minority right

n         Constitutional democracy

n         Constitutional republic

n         Democracyís relation with Economy



Topic One

Definition of democracy:

The definition of democracy literally is the majority rule, which means that majority (Aksariat) has the right to rule the minority (Aqalliat), We Baloch as a minority in Iran are specifically interested in democracy since we think it will bring us prosperity, having this expectation we must understand the concept of democracy otherwise we will be shooting ourselves on the foot, at first it seems a great idea to have a democracy to achieve Baloch demands because democracy is great, we say we could be wrong and we will explain why then after we explain why it appears that majority rule is a bad idea since majority Wants every right to their own advantage therefore limiting the minority rights, in our case Persian majority will limit Baloch right or so, the rights are the social rights, political rights, economical rights, so forth and so on, but democracy is a great asset for human being when administered justly. Therefore to take the confusion out, we opt for constitutional republic(constitutional democracy), which means we want a democracy that is negotiated between Persian majority, Baloch, Kurds, Azerbaijan Turks, Turkmen, Lor, Gilaki, Saheli, Iranian Christians,

Iranian Jews, Zoroastrian through the constitution, in turn constitution is a political contract signed by all of the above to respect each other rights, the majority will respect and accept the minorities rights to have equal opportunity, equal employment, equal credit and lending for business, equal education opportunity, equal in every thing and minorities also accept and respect majority rights equally if we want to live together as one nation in one country called Iran. If we donít negotiate the terms and conditions of democracy with Persian majority, we will not achieve what we intend to achieve. For the reasons above we must have a constitutional democracy, and only a constitutional democracy and Iran as a constitutional republic will serve all of us and will make rapid progress.


Topic two


n         Type of democracy

There are many types of democracy but among all democracies, two of them stand out and will help us to achieve our goals for equality in Iran.

One is the presidential democracy and the other is the parliamentary democracy.

We emphasize the constitutional democracy where the equality of all people is recognized,

The majority is not allowed to trample on minority rights and minority is not allowed to abuse

Or take away the majority rights. Every one is equal in all aspects of life in the eyes of law and also there is mechanism in place to prevent the rights abuse. Constitutional democracy is a contractual document between parties and political organizations that obligates all parties involved to obey by the contract or be punished by the same contract. This contract is called

The constitution and is the highest law of the land.††

In case of Iran, the political groups who would be involved to write the constitution are

Persian(speaking), Baloch, Kurds, Azerbaijan Turks, Turkmen, Lor, Banadere Saheli, Taleshi

And many other Iranian groups.


Presidential democracy:

The social rights are vast, such as educational rights, retirement rights, jobs rights, health care rights, the list goes on. Political rights are as vast as the social rights so are the economical rights.

By definition the majority can make the laws, which means their representatives in the house and senate can make the laws to benefit the majority and not the minority, they might limit minority rights to apply the majority hegemony. Therefore minority becomes subjugated to the majority rules,

Majority can make laws to limit the minorityís use of roads, going to schools, getting a job, walking on the streets, of course these examples are extreme examples, its not to say those would happen but

If majority decides to limit the minorityís rights, they can do it if we accept the democracy as majorityís rule without modification and conditions attached to it, but itís not to say that democracy is bad, democracy is great when itís applied in a controlled fashion to give equal rights to every one.

Thatís why the definition of democracy has been expanded and the traditional definition has been abandoned. The democracyís new definition is the rules from the people, for the people and by the people, first people make the laws (their representatives), second the laws are made to benefit the people equally (constitutional democracy comes into picture), the third is that the laws are executed by the people (executive branch).

Presidential democracy is a democracy that the president is elected directly by peopleís direct free and confidential vote, the post of prime minister doesnít exist, the president and his cabinet is the executive branch of government, all the government departments such as defense, agriculture, health, justice fall under his/her jurisdiction. This constitutes the executive branch of government, the branch that implements the laws that created by the legislative branch of government and the laws vetted by the judicial branch of government. By definition the vice president is not part of the executive branch, the vice president is the president of the senate but it doesnít run the senate affairs, the vice president is the president of the senate as a tie breaker, in case the senate is divided equally between the parties, the vice presidentís vote will add one more vote to give majority to a party. Of course the vice president has some other more important jobs and works to do.


††††† The legislative branch is the House of representatives (majelese shourai melli) and Senate(Sana), together these two chambers are called congress(Mo-asesan). The congress makes the laws. The house and senate members are elected directly by peopleís direct free and confidential vote. We should also mention that in a presidential democracy there are many parties and political organization who compete to win people trust and of course the candidates are party members who have proved themselves through the party rank to be trustworthy for candidacy and election, this is designed to avoid chaotic elections and law making and let people choose their best and brightest for the post of senators and house representatives.


††††† The judiciary branch of government is the Supreme Court where it determines the constitutionality of the laws that congress make, if the laws are challenged by people, their representatives or by non profit organizations, every law that passed by the congress must conform to the constitution.

The justices are nominated by the president and confirmed by the senate where senate act on behalf of people to evaluate the justices credentials, characters, fairness, impartiality, the justices can sits on the Supreme Courtís bench after they are confirmed by senate, it is so to make sure the right judges are appointed to the supreme court.

We should also mention that high position who have impact on people life are also nominated by

President and confirmed by senate, such as joint chief of staff of military, district and appeal court judges, cabinet ministers, ambassadors, directors of important departments. The senate also evaluates and confirms the contracts with the foreign countries to make sure that the contracts are not against our national interests.



††††† This brings us to a democracy which is a series of laws, rules and regulations created from the people to server the people and be executed by people but people assign their representatives to make the laws, that is where the house of representative comes to life, the members of house of representatives are elected by people with proportionate representation, which means the sates with more population will have more house of representatives, the senate is an institution created to give equal representation to people in contrast to house of representatives which is proportional, in the senate each state will have equal number of senators or representatives, for instance each state will have 2 representatives, if Iran is to have 35 states then the senate will have 70 members, 2 members for each state, the senate also server to ratify the treaties with foreign countries when president sign treaties, in reality the senate approves the presidents treaties with foreigncountries on behalf of people.

††††† The senate also acts as the court house if the president is to be recalled, impeached or tried for offences to the country or public, the Supreme Courtís chief justice will presides as the judge, the Senate is the jury and the members of house of representative will be the prosecutors. The house of representative and senate will have the power to question the president/prime minister and its cabinet members, and demand explanation from them because house of representative and Senate are the people since they represent the people, if president or his/her cabinet ministers, directors, or all executive branch employees violate the law, the congress can make new laws to stop the violations or can force the president to fires the violators.

††††† The same procedures are applied at the state and city level for consistency and relevance.


n         The parliamentary democracy has the same structure as the presidential democracy except

The president, prime minister, members of the parliament are chosen from the party members, so if a party has a majority, meaning they get more vote in election, then the president, prime minister or other key positions to fill bythe winning party or parties.

One example is India where the people vote for party members for the parliament, the party

That gets more vote will choose the prime minister and the presidentís position is largely a ceremonial position to please a certain group since the president in Indian has no power and can not enforce any law.


Topic three


n         Majority and minority right

Our discussion about democracy will get redundant and may seems to be boring since we have talked about many thing in the previous text but that is not the case, since all topics are related, they would contain some repeated sentences.

According to democracy, the majority has the right to make the laws, yes, we agree but we say that the majority only has the right to make fair and just laws and we will not allow the majority to make unjust and unfair laws why?

The reason is that every country provide services to its citizens, the services are but not limited to constructing roads for its citizens to use, to conduct business using these roads, or ship goods and products, to provide infrastructure for electricity and telephone, provide schools, hospitals and healthcare facilities, facilitate commerce, build dams, provide drinking water and so many other services.

Providing services requires money to pay for all those services but where the money comes from, the answer is that the money supplied through tax collection from citizens plus from some other national resources such as oil and gas that we all own and share collectively.

Therefore every citizen, majority and minorities pay taxes to help the government to provide

The services we mentioned about, so the government taxes every one equally, use citizenís resources equally, and then government must treat every one equal under the law.

Diversity brings creativity and prosperity to the nation and the country and we should be proud of being a diverse country with many different nationalities under one flag, then we need a common language to communicate among each other, since we have lived together for

Many centuries, we have adopted the Persian as common language to communicate although the language belongs to the majority but we all benefit from it.

The majority has the right to read and write in its own language so does the minority, the majority has the right to educate its children, so does minority, we all have many common needs that we share, therefore we must respect the common rights for minorities as well.

We need to add a mechanism to fight discrimination in our constitutional democracy, that is why we must add provisions to the constitution that allows the citizens to sue the government or business owners or individuals for discrimination and since these kind of law suits are civil law suits that no one will go to prison and only monetary judgments are awarded, therefore

The defendant (discriminator, the violator) must prove that he or she has not violated the antidiscrimination laws, and plaintiffonly need to file a just, true and reasonable claim, this way the society will correct itself, we need this kind of laws in Iran since the discrimination is so deep routed against, Baloch, Kurd, Arabs, Azerbaijan Turks, Turkmen, Armenian, Jews, Bahaiís,Zoroastrian, just to name a few, the discrimination is fought this way in united states of America since 1963 and USA has made a remarkable progress in 44 years.

Majority rights and rules are respected and followed with condition that Majority also respect the equal rights and opportunity for minorities as well, this is just and fair. This is not taking away from majority rights but its sharing the same rights with minorities.



n         Constitutional democracy

A constitutional democracy is a democracy that is defined by the constitution and not accepting general and vague definition of democracy.

Since democracy definition is the rule of majority, therefore if itís accepted as itís defined, this will bring about injustices and trampling of minority rights.

The constitutional democracy is a democracy that the constitution limits the majority power to bring normalcy to the society and get rid of injustices and inequalities.

Constitutional democracy would modify the democracy to include minoritiesí rights, power sharing, equal opportunities, equal political, economical, social rights as such that minorities and majorities will have equal opportunities to contribute to the society and live in peace and harmony together. The power would be shared horizontally across all strife of society. It gives responsibility to the citizen and establishes accountability for all.

The government institutions are tasked to implement the constitutional democracy.


n         Constitutional republic


A Constitutional republic is a republican system of government that is provisioned in the constitutional democracy. This constitutional republic is preferred

System of government to separate the power in 3 branches of Judiciary, legislative and executive branches in the form of federal republic and it limits the central government power to what the constitutional democracy has prescribed in the constitution.

A federal system of republican government is preferred to divide the power between local entities and federal government. The federal government role would be monitored to ensure the implementation of constitutional democracy by the local entities such as state governments, county, city and town government. The federal republic regulate the commerce between states, managing currency production and supply, manages foreign trades, oversees the

Implementation of justice as its mandated by the constitution, its tasked with protection of the country as well.

Each state will have their own state constitution and the state constitution must comply with federal constitution, the county local laws comply with federal laws and state laws, the city laws (ordinance) comply with county, state and federal laws. A federal republic is preferred to minimize the cost of government.

Some may ask why a constitutional monarchy is not desired or preferred. The answer is that since a constitutional monarchy has the king, queen, crown prince as hierarchy and these positions are hereditary therefore a constitutional monarchy violates the democratic principle of equal rights, equal opportunities. A constitutional monarchy system of government violates equal rights principle because the King, Queen or crown prince position is

Not available through election process to people, another word the commoners can not be kings, queens or crown prince in a constitutional Monarchy because these positions are persevered for Kings family.

It violates the principle of equal opportunity because people are not given the chance to become a candidate for election to become king, therefore an exception can not be made to give one person or family special privileges to become King and public has to pay for a King and his royal court. An exception would be an injustice to tax paying public. In some countries such as Britain, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Belgium, etc. a political deal with public has been made to avoid a violent over through of monarchyand bloodshed, for this reason people accepted to strip the monarchy of power and transfer the power to an elected government such the prime minister which represent the people. United Kingdom is an exception since it even doesnít have a written constitution.

The other problem with Monarchy is that if a king turns into a dictator, the King can not be replaced by another King peacefully, since King Position is a hereditary position but a president, prime minister and ministers can be changed through peaceful means such as elections, after 4 years if a president, prime minister turn into a dictator, he or she can be replaced in the next election.

In our opinion the best choice for Iran is a constitutional republic with federal system of government where the state governments, counties and cities

Govern them selves and stop blaming the central government for failure or not helping the provinces or the states. In Federal system of government since each state or province is handling their own affairs, it forces them to be creative and competitive where rapid progress can be achieved in all aspects of people life. Some example are, job creation, each state would try to outsmart the other and give more incentive to business owners to move their businesses

To the states where they gain the most, hence creating job in that state, the incentives are accomplished through the tax system levied on the businesses.

For instance if a company employ more people in state of Balochistan, it will receive more tax cuts and pays less in taxes to local or state government.

The states or provinces would have to create development plans for their own states since the provincial or state development will no longer be the federal

Government responsibility, the federal government will help the states to achieve their development goals if they meet the federal government requirements.

The federal government requirements will be established by people federal representatives such as federal members of the house and senate.



n         Democracyís relation with Economy


No country will make any economic, social, political and cultural progress without democracy, the democracy here meant to be constitutional democracy.

The constitutional democracy will establish clear rules and regulations and will give a chance to people and business owners to debate the rules and regulations and have input to the rules and regulations. This ways the best business practices could be achieved from the expertise and experience of ordinary citizens, economists, politicians, business owner and business oriented individuals.

For a nation to achieve its development goals a Democratic and free market economy is necessary, a democratic, free market economy is only achievable through a constitutional democracy where there is accountability and transparency. In order to succeed in business, the business rules and business models must be very clear and transparent, the accountability for business owners, consumers and government must be very clear, compensations, punishments, gain and losses must be crystal clear so investors and business leaders can follow through. Role of government to provide the infrastructure such as good roads for transportation, telecommunication, other business infrastructure so delivery channels could be developed for shops and shopping malls, online stores, TV and radio, print media and many more trade and businesses. Infrastructures Such as Good and easy to follow business address, good and easy to follow consumer address, street address, postal codes, reliable postal services are an example that the government can facilitate. Take for example in current Iranís business climate with no business transparency, one can not do business such as selling products through mail order business or online/internet store, since there are no good street addresses, there are no consumer confidence or trust on a business who sells products through mail order.

Here is one example that ACME store sells shoes through mail order, just write a check to ACME, shoe size, color, brand name and

Send to ACME store,

30 meter toMelli park,

Behind Vali building(there are 10 vali buildings in Tehran),

Before crossing Kuche Farman,

Left on Kuche farey qorban-ali,

Iinside Mehran house,

Room number 1 before room number 3,

Tehran, Tehran province


Now how can a mailman deliver a check to ACME store, if he/she can, it will take 10 times longer then a normal delivery, does a customer trust such an address to send a check to ACME to buy a pair of shoes,

If ACME address were to be:

ACME Store

1234 Farman street, suite 101,

Tehran, Tehran 12345(zip code)


It will be easier to deliver or receive products, easier to trust, takes less space on the envelop, takes less time to write the address, there would be room for stamp, this model is a lot more efficient then the first ACME Tehran address because devising good address is a science, a good government, house and Senate will standardize the address system through out the country and will enforce it to facilitate doing business.

A democratic and free market economy will facilitate the consumer rights and product safety, business owner and investor rights, job creation, incentive for investors, compensation for consumers, establishes responsibility of consumer, investor and business owner, the government responsibility, every one responsibility and accountability. It will create anti-corruption laws and so on. In a democratic economy, the Government would know where it stands, the governmentís parameters and its extend of power are established as not to hurt the business, the government can not penalize an investor arbitrarily unless a violation takes place and the punishment of business owner also must fit the crime. In a democratic and free market economy if a government misbehave and become corrupt, it will start losing money since the government is run on tax money, therefore the government will try its best to behave good, the more jobs the government creates through encouragement of business owners and incentives to investors, the more money it makes through tax collection, the more people employed, the more tax they pay to support the government hence it is wise to have a democratic and free market economy. A democratic and free market economy would give every citizen a chance to setup a business thus reducing the government burden of job creation, the government has limited resources to create job such as a government in Iran can only create

2 to 5 million jobs while there are 30 million job applicants looking for job, but the private sector if given the right choices can create 200 times more jobs

Then the government therefore eliminating the unemployment or reducing it to a minimum.

Letís consider another example, in democratic countries with nuclear power plans, citizens can file law suits and force the government to pay compensation to the victims and their families for government misdeeds, so government knows its limits and take strong safety measure when creating nuclear power plants, but in Iran with nuclear power plants, since there is no democracy in Iran and economic democracy doesnít exists, let alone

The constitutional democracy, if there is a nuclear leak in Bushehr, no body would answer to people who would be injured by a nuclear leak or the polluted environment from radio actives, you and I know that the radio actives can stay in the environment for centuries and causes cancers, baby and animal deformity, deafness, blindness, cross eyes, abnormal long heads, 3 legs in human babies or animal, 4 hands and so many other problems.

If some one dies, Iranian citizens can not file a law suit against the department of energy or Iranian government. Iranian citizens can not claim compensations for loss of life.

If any one object to nuclear leak in Iran, that any one would be arrested, put in jail or would be executed, case is closed. No one can complain for environmental contamination, no one would listen to complaints, future generations would be disfigured, deformed and no one would be accountable to future and current generation injuries. Iranian government now promoting the uranium enrichment as a pride for Iranian but we forget that there is no accountability in Iran now for nuclear leaks and nuclear accidents, there is no one to turn to, unlike India, USA and Europe where if there are nuclear accidents the citizens have the power to take the governments to court and punish the governments but in Iran, there is no way that any one would be accountable unless there is a constitutional democracy. The Iranian nuclear enrichment is a disaster waiting to happen, itís not a question if it will happen, itís a question of when it will happen, once it happens, the entire Persian Gulf region, Caspian Sea region and Middle East will suffer.

The existence of democratic economy is important for a country to move forward with development, it is important to keep the state capitalism(government owned business) away to give a chance to competition, creativity and to support the private sector, small enterprises to create and sustain a healthy economy.



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